What can make it fail?
Unwanted childlessness always affects both partners. The search for the causes must therefore always be carried out by both partners. The reasons for unwanted childlessness are manifold and are evenly distributed between men and women. In some cases both partners have causes of infertility, while in other cases there are no recognisable causes at all for the absence of pregnancy.
In addition to organic, immunological and biological causes, psychological aspects also play a role. Environmental pollution, stress, being overweight, unhealthy diet, excessive consumption of alcohol, coffee, drugs and smoking can also affect fertility.
Dysfunction of the ovaries
Functional disorders of the ovaries are usually caused by hormones. Hormonal dysfunctions can lead to irregularities in the cycle, disturbances in egg maturation, lack of ovulation and insufficient formation of the corpus luteum. The hormonal imbalance can be caused by any form of stress, inflammation, injury, tumour, being underweight or overweight, rapid extremes in weight changes, severe physical stress, congenital dysfunction of hormonal glands, medication, environmental pollutants and stimulants. Malformations of the ovaries can also be hereditary.
Fallopian tube infertility
Damage to the fallopian tubes can occur in many variations and is usually caused by inflammation. Inflammations can lead to the closure of the fallopian tube ends (fringe funnel) and to adhesions of the fallopian tubes. However, ectopic pregnancies and adhesions after surgery can also impair the function of the fallopian tubes. In addition, malformations of the fallopian tubes can already occur during embryonic development or be hereditary. Damage to the fallopian tubes means that the egg collection mechanism and egg transport to the uterine cavity are disturbed or completely impossible.
Endometriosis is the colonisation of the outer lining of the uterus. It is presumably caused by uterine mucosa residues that are carried backwards through the fallopian tubes into the free abdominal cavity during menstruation. Endometriosis lesions are often found in the peritoneum, but also in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, intestines and bladder. Endometriosis can be treated with medication or surgery.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCO)
The PCO syndrome is caused by hormonal disorders that begin at puberty. The degree of severity can vary greatly and ranges from a disturbed corpus luteum function to the complete absence of periodontal bleeding. Women with PCO syndrome produce more male hormones in the ovaries and/or adrenal cortex. As a result, enlarged ovaries are formed, which carry many small follicles, and egg cell development is disturbed.
The most common disorder in men is limited formation of normal sperm cells that move well forward. Normally, one millilitre of semen should contain at least 20 million sperm cells, of which about one-third should be of normal shape. In order to ensure that a sufficient number of spermatozoa can travel the arduous path through the vagina, cervix, cavity and fallopian tubes up to the egg, at least half of the spermatozoa should be able to move forward. If the sperm values are below these normal values, a man's fertility is restricted. Testicular dysfunction may be inherited or caused by injury or accident. Varicose veins (varicocele) are also very common. Anomalies in the early childhood (testicular hypertension) that are not detected and corrected in time often lead to uncorrectable damage to the testicles. Sperm maturation disorders can also be the late consequence of a mumps infection in childhood. Febrile or infectious diseases can also temporarily restrict testicular sperm production. Excessive consumption of alcohol and nicotine as well as stress and environmental pollution are further factors that can have a negative influence on sperm cell formation.
Disturbed sperm cell-oocyte interaction
Irrespective of sperm density, functional disturbances can also hamper or block the penetration of the sperm into the egg and thus cause infertility.
Transport disorders of the vas deferens
In some men, a sufficient number of sperm cells are formed, but there are still few or no cells in their sperm, as these are obstructed by a blockade of the sperm duct. The causes of this may be a sticking of the vas deferens or epididymis ducts, which is the result of inflammation. However, closed or underdeveloped vas deferens can also be inherited. Injuries and operations (e.g. after inguinal hernia) can also result in a disruption of semen transport.